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Content:: Linux

Last Modified: 2016-03-19
Linux has many different flavors or distributions of the kernel and other software packages. We will primarily be focusing on the Debian Linux Operating System. This section hopes to cover some basic tools and configurations along with getting yourself setup with a desktop client and a server. We will primarily be working with the Network Installation version (netinst) which is a small version that requires a decent internet connection to download the packages from an online "apt" repository.

Table of Contents
Basic Command Line Tools
Understanding and using the command line - Some basic commands to help you understand how to use the command line.

Using Advanced Package Tool (apt) - Advanced Package Tool (apt) is the package management tool for the Debian Linux distribution. It is also used in the popular spin off of the Debian distribution Ubuntu. This how to will go over basic apt command going over your apt sources, how to update your repository lists, installing with apt and searching the apt repository.

File permissions (chmod) - How to view file permissions with ls and change them with the numeric values using chmod.

Managing Debian Packages (dpkg) - dpkg is a tool that allows you to install and remove Debian packages (.deb files).

Basic configuration and navigation
Changing your hostname - We'll change our systems hostname and network hostname by editing the /etc/hostname and /etc/host file.

How to determine the version of linux you are running - There are a handful of ways to tell what version of linux you are running. Most likely you will be able to view the /etc/issue file. This article will help you gather more information about your system.

Finding Large Files with du - Finding large files with du, sort and head!

How to fix your audio - Ran into issues where my audio was only working for one application at a time. After doing some digging I found out the audio was being redirected via Pulse Audio to my video cards HDMI port! Follow the link to follow my debugging routine and removing the HDMI audio device from loading in the kernel.

Disabling Console Beeps - The console beeps from autocompletion (via the tab key) and scrolling in less can be annoying sometimes. Here we will show how to disable them by editing the .inputrc and .profile files!

Desktop Configurations
Installing Debian for a desktop from a netinst CD - A run through of getting the netinst from a scratch install to a functional desktop. Installing and configuring a GUI (Blackbox), tools for every day use including: file managers, ftp and scp, reading PDF's, system monitoring, viewing and editing images, watching dvd's and videos, listening to music, etc.

Cool Applications - A bunch of applications that I use on linux, many are compatible and free on windows too wowow.

Backing up your DVD movies in Linux - Copying and backing up your DVD movies with dvdbackup, genisoimage and how to play the ISO image from your computer.

Samba mount script - Using a Shell Script to mount Samba shares. Using a Samba credentials file to store passwords and running sudo for the mount. This is an alternative to the fstab.

Installing and using VirtualBox on Debian - How to install and determine what version of VirtualBox you want to use. How to clone files with VBoxManage from the command line and create new Virtual Machines with the VirtualBox Manger interface.

Shrinking the Cairo Dock's Vertical Black Border - When using Cairo Dock the black border can cover up a lot of items. We will be changing the label settings to shrink the black border!

The Slueth Kit - The Slueth Kit (TSK) is an open source forensics utility. After using an aquisition tool like dd to create an image you can perform a forensics evaluation on the image with TSK.

Server Configurations
Apt-cacher - Setting up Apt-cacher to spare your network connection and your primary repository. Instead of pointing to the primary repositories you can easily set up Apt-cacher to act as a proxy for your APT installations.

Configuring apache to send less data to potential attackers - How to harden apache by configuring the server to send less information about itself. This isn't an end all documentation for security and may not make you less susceptible to attacks, it may keep you off the radar of those attempting to target you.

Compiling Secure Shell (ssh) - How to compile Secure Shell from the source. Starting from decompressing the "tar gzip" file, using make, creating a shell script to start and stop the server and having it auto load.

Deny Hosts - Protect your system from brute force attacks. Deny Hosts monitors log files and detects invalid logins. Must have if you are running a Secure Shell (SSH) server. You can configure the amount of incorrect logins, and sync it to a central list of hosts that are blocked.

Configuring SSH and PAM to use Kerberos Authentication - Installing the Kerberos client for SSH and PAM.

Setup and configuration of a LAMP web server - Using the Debian netinst CD's we can setup a LAMP web server with ease. We will be setting up Apache, MySQL and PHP.

Logwatch - Logwatch is a useful tool that will help you keep tabs on your logs. It will parse your log files for things you want to know and create reports that are simple to follow and easy to read. This tutorial will walk you through the installation and configuration process.

Installing Mod-Security - Secure your Apache web server the Mod-Security Web Application Firewall (WAF).

Installing Nagios - Nagios is a popular network monitor. Here we will run through a simple configuration to install a nagios server and show example configurations to monitor other servers.

Setup and Configure Postfix - Postfix is a mail daemon that will allow us to easily send mail to other servers.

Installing an NFS server on Debian - How to setup an NFS server on Debian Linux, a continuation of the Debian netinst tutorial.

Samba server setup - Installation and configuration of a Samba file server from the basic Debain netinst CD. Configuration of groups, shares and connections to the server with the samba client and smbfs mounting.

Setting up Serverstats - Serverstats is a web based reporting tool that gives a visual graphs of data on your system, network traffic, logged in users and much more. Sereverstats is a collection of PHP scripts that uses rrdtool that can report the data via a web server.

MySQL "Basic" Command Line Reference - Command line MySQL for creating databases, setting permissions, creating tables, inserting data, modifying data, etc.

Some out of date, old or informative articles I rarely use

Installing Debian from a netinst CD - How to install a minimalist version of the Debian operating system. Using apt to install the C/C++ programming language, development libraries and simple tools. We will go into how to retrieve and compile Secure Shell from the command line.

Mounting a USB Thumb Drive - How to Mount a USB Thumb Drive in Linux. Using the Linux CLI or "Command Line Interface" to use the kernel message log to find your USB Thumb Drive. Determine which device file the kernel sets the drive to. Creating a location to mount the device. Mounting the USB Thumb Drive. Securely erasing and reformatting the drive and validating the erasing process.

IP Tables Tutorial This link will open a new window - An in depth Firewall Tutorial on how to use IP Tables written by Oskar Andreasson. This document can help explain many features used in my firewall script found in the bash shell programming section here

Vi Tutorial Link to a pdf filesThis link will open a new window - Vi is a command line text editor which can be difficult to master without some sort of cheat sheet or tutorial. This tutorial may help you grasp some of the basic navigation commands within the VI text editor.